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A histogram is a graphical way of presenting a frequency distribution of quantitative data organised into a number equally spaced intervals or bins (e.g. 1-10, 11-20…). The interval range is selected to reduce the amount of information while still providing enough variability to picture the shape of the distribution.
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Bar charts are often primarily used for displaying the quantities of qualitative or categorical data (e.g. age group, religious affiliation), although they can also be used for quantitative data if the number of unique scores in the data set is not large.
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A matrix chart shows relationships between two or more variables in a data set in grid format.  Essentially, the matrix chart is a table made up of rows and columns that present data visually and can be seen as the visual equivalent of a crosstabulation that divides data between the variables. The matrix chart is formed through at least two variables, for the X- and Y-categories. If there is a third or fourth variable, colour or other another dimension can be added to the matrix to represent it.
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A Scatterplot is used to display the relationship between two quantitative variables plotted along two axes. A series of dots represent the position of observations from the data set. The independent variable is generally plotted along the horizontal (X) axis, and the dependent (or responsive) variable along the vertical (Y) axis. If no dependent variable exists, either type of variable can be plotted on either axis; in this case, the scatter plot will illustrate only the degree of correlation (and not causation) between two variables. ​
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A network diagram is made up of a set of nodes and lines that connect those nodes. Usually a product of social network analysis, a network diagram is the visual display of how people (or other elements) in a network are connected.
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Inferential statistics suggest statements or make predictions about a population based on a sample from that population. Non-parametric tests relate to data that are flexible and do not follow a normal distribution. 

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