# New Material

## Parametric Inferential

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Inferential statistics suggest statements about a population based on a sample from that population. Parametric inferential tests are carried out on data that follow certain parameters: the data will be normal (i.e. the distribution parallels the bell curve); numbers can be added, subtracted, multiplied and divided; variances are equal when comparing two or more groups; and the sample should be large and randomly selected.

## Multivariate Descriptive

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Descriptive statistics provide simple summaries of (large amounts of) information (or data). These summaries are quantitative (e.g. means, correlations) or displayed visually (in graphs, scatterplots, etc.).

## Crosstabulations

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Crosstabulation (or crosstab) is a basic part of survey research in which researchers can get an indication of the frequency of two variables (e.g. gender or income, and frequency of school attendance) occurring at the same time.

## Summary Statistics

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Summary statistics provide a quick summary of data and are particularly useful for comparing one project to another, or before and after.

## Frequency Tables

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One of the first steps in analysing data is to construct a frequency distribution table. A frequency table provides collected data values arranged in ascending order of magnitude, along with their corresponding frequencies.

## Vote Counting

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Vote counting is a simple but limited method for synthesizing evidence from multiple evaluations, which involves simply  comparing the number of positive studies (studies showing benefit) with the number of negative studies (studies showing harm). It does not take into account the quality of the studies, the size of the samples, or the size of the effect.