To develop evaluative judgments, the evaluator draws data from the evaluation and systematically synthesises and values the data. There are a range of options that can be used for synthesis and valuing.
- Consensus Conference: a process where a selected group of lay people (non-experts) representing the community are briefed, consider the evidence and prepare a joint finding and recommendation
- Expert Panel: a process where a selected group of experts consider the evidence and prepare a joint finding
- Cost Benefit Analysis: compares costs to benefits, both expressed in monetary units
- Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: compares costs to the outcomes expressed in terms of a standardized unit (eg additional years of schooling)
- Cost Utility Analysis: a particular type of cost-effectiveness analysis that expresses benefits in terms of a standard unit such as Quality Adjusted Life Years
- Lessons learnt: Lessons learnt can develop out of the evaluation process as evaluators reflect on their experiences in undertaking the evaluation.
- Multi-Criteria Analysis: a systematic process to address multiple criteria and perspectives
- Numeric Weighting: developing numeric scales to rate performance against each evaluation criterion and then add them up for a total score.
- Qualitative Weight and Sum: using qualitative ratings (such as symbols) to identify performance in terms of essential, important and unimportant criteria
- Rubrics: using a descriptive scale for rating performance that incorporates performance across a number of criteria
- Value for Money: a term used in different ways, including as a synonym for cost-effectiveness, and as systematic approach to considering these issues throughout planning and implementation, not only in evaluation.
- Social Return on Investment: a systematic way of incorporating social, environmental, economic and other values into decision-making processes