The value iceberg: weighing the benefits of advocacy and campaigning

BetterEvaluation Discussion Paper 1 is a thought piece written by Rhonda Schlangen and Jim Coe (independent consultants), members of the BetterEvaluation Community, and is intended to promote discussion. See the associated blog where you can post or view comments and responses, or listen to the Advocacy Iceberg podcast to hear Jim and Rhonda discuss this paper's themes.

The paper looks at how concepts of 'value' and 'results' are being applied to advocacy and campaigning and presents some alternative strategies for assessing advocacy. 


  • Weighing the benefits of advocacy and campaigning
  • The value of value for money
  • Campaigning: comparing invisible value
  • Applying the value prism to campaigning
    • 1. Diffuse and volatile dimensions of change
    • 2. 'Wins' can be subjective and conditional
    • 3. Advocacy as a contributor and catalyst
  • Constructive solutions
    • Strengthening conceptual underpinnings of campaigning/advocacy
    • Strengthening the evidence base for campaigning/advocacy


Schlangen, R. & Coe, J. (2014) The value iceberg: weighing the benefits of advocacy and campaigning.
Discussion Paper 1. BetterEvaluation.

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