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  1. Participant Observation

    Evaluation Option

    This option is used to identify the attitudes and operation of a community by a researcher living within its environs.

  2. Social Mapping

    Wellbeing ranking
    Evaluation Option

    This option is used to help identify households using pre-determined indicators that are based on socio-economic factors. It works to determine a relative ranking of socio-economic status of the household rather than an absolute ranking. It can help determine which households are benefiting from an assessment and whether or not they belong to the target group.

  3. Stories

    Anecdotes, Narrative Techniques, Story Telling
    Evaluation Option
    Image: AH-BJ-100920-5574 World Bank, photo taken by Arne Hoel

    Personal stories provide a glimpse into how people experience their lives and have long been an important part of evaluations -for example being reported in case studies. The process of collecting stories usually begins with an interview, whether in groups (e.g. through group interviews or “story circles”) or in individual interviews. There are different ways of recording the information, including standardised questionnaires and open-ended notes, and different narrative technique to draw out, code and aggregate fragments of data, including options used in the Most Significant Change approach, such as voting*, and the self-signification used in the SenseMaker™ software programme) varies. New techniques make it possible to conduct quantitative analyses based on qualitative, emotional and open-ended narratives.

  4. External Consultant

    External Evaluator
    Evaluation Option

    An external consultant is someone external to the organization who can be contracted to conduct the evaluation - sometimes they develop the evaluation design and sometimes they implement the design outlined in the Terms of Reference.

  5. Internal Staff

    Evaluation Option

    Conducting an evaluation using staff from the implementing agency rather than hiring external consultants.

  6. Peer review for meta-evaluation

    Evaluation Option

    Reviewing the evaluation by using peers from within the organisation or outside of the organisation

  7. Community

    Evaluation Option

    The community, particularly intended beneficiaries of an intervention, can undertake an evaluation or contribute to a combined team.

  8. Standards, evaluative criteria and benchmarks

    Benchmarks and standards
    Evaluation Option
    Standards by Christopher Meredith on Flickr

    One way of identifying the values that will be used in an evaluation is to develop explicit standards, evaluative criteria or benchmarks or to use existing relevant standards, criteria or benchmarks.

    [Picture: Christopher Meredith Flickr]

  9. Stated Goals and Objectives

    Legislative Review
    Evaluation Option
    Archery in Bhutan photo by brentolson on Flickr

    Evaluations can use the program's stated objectives and goals to assess program success or failure. Program objectives and goals are generally determined at the beginning of the design process. Occassionally this has not been done, or the program goals have changed along the way. If this is the case, it can be useful to generate a project logic model - either collaboratively or through key inputs and then tested with team members.

  10. Public Consultations

    Evaluation Option
    People on village meeting by public domain images

    Public consultations are usually conducted through public meetings to provide an opportunity for the community to raise issues of concern and respond to options.