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  1. Internal Staff

    Evaluation Option

    Conducting an evaluation using staff from the implementing agency rather than hiring external consultants.

  2. Peer review for meta-evaluation

    Evaluation Option

    Reviewing the evaluation by using peers from within the organisation or outside of the organisation

  3. Community

    Evaluation Option

    The community, particularly intended beneficiaries of an intervention, can undertake an evaluation or contribute to a combined team.

  4. Public Consultations

    Evaluation Option
    People on village meeting by public domain images

    Public consultations are usually conducted through public meetings to provide an opportunity for the community to raise issues of concern and respond to options.




  5. Sequential Sampling

    Evaluation Option
    Inside Purple Flower by Frank Starmer

    Sequential sampling is a non-probabilistic sampling technique, initially developed as a tool for product quality control.  The sample size, n, is not fixed in advanced, nor is the timeframe of data collection.  The process begins, first, with the sampling of a single observation or a group of observations.  These are then tested to see whether or not the null hypothesis can be rejected.  If the null is not rejected, then another observation or group of observations is sampled and the test is run again.  In this way the test continues until the researcher is confident in his or her results.

  6. Outlier Sampling

    Evaluation Option
    Humla, a basalt outlier Photo by George Brown

    This type of sampling focuses on the extremes – the end-points of the normal distribution bell-curve. Outlier sampling studies cases that are unusual or special in some way, such as outstanding successes or notable failures. Many programs can have ‘best’ sites of implementation. Studying why these sites are different can provide insight into both what is unique to that case and also what is typical and shared with other sites.

  7. Maximum Variation Sampling

    Evaluation Option
    Photo by Scuola di Atene

    A maximum variation sample contains cases that are purposefully as different from each other as possible. This type of sampling is useful for examining range in large national or global programs.

  8. Homogenous Sampling

    Evaluation Option
    Banda Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia (Feb. 12, 2005)

    Homogenous sampling involves selecting similar cases to further investigate a particular phenomenon or subgroup of interest. The logic of homogenous sampling is in contrast to the logic of maximum variation sampling.

  9. Snowball Sampling

    Evaluation Option
    Large Snowball, London N14 photo by Christine Matthews

    'Snowball or Chain Sampling is an option for locating information rich key informants and critical cases. The process begins by asking well situated people “Who knows a lot about ___?Whom should I talk to?” By asking a number of people who else to talk with, the snowball gets bigger and bigger as you accumulate new information-rich cases. 

  10. Theory-based Sampling

    Evaluation Option
    Untitled by Pieterjan Grobler

    Theory-based sampling involves selecting cases according to the extent to which they represent a particular theoretical construct. Purposive sampling is used as the population of the particular theoretical construct is difficult to determine.