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  1. Delphi Study

    Synonyms: 
    Delphi Technique
    Evaluation Option
    Delphi photo by Navin Rajagopalan

    The Delphi technique is a quantitative option aimed at generating consensus. It solicits opinions from groups in an iterative process of answering questions. After each round the responses are summarised and redistributed for discussion in the next round. Through a process of convergence involving the identification of common trends and inspection of outliers, a consensus is reached.

  2. Participant Observation

    Evaluation Option

    This option is used to identify the attitudes and operation of a community by a researcher living within its environs.

  3. Social Mapping

    Synonyms: 
    Wellbeing ranking
    Evaluation Option

    This option is used to help identify households using pre-determined indicators that are based on socio-economic factors. It works to determine a relative ranking of socio-economic status of the household rather than an absolute ranking. It can help determine which households are benefiting from an assessment and whether or not they belong to the target group.

  4. Stories

    Synonyms: 
    Anecdotes, Narrative Techniques, Story Telling
    Evaluation Option
    Image: AH-BJ-100920-5574 World Bank, photo taken by Arne Hoel

    Personal stories provide a glimpse into how people experience their lives and have long been an important part of evaluations -for example being reported in case studies. The process of collecting stories usually begins with an interview, whether in groups (e.g. through group interviews or “story circles”) or in individual interviews. There are different ways of recording the information, including standardised questionnaires and open-ended notes, and different narrative technique to draw out, code and aggregate fragments of data, including options used in the Most Significant Change approach, such as voting*, and the self-signification used in the SenseMaker™ software programme) varies. New techniques make it possible to conduct quantitative analyses based on qualitative, emotional and open-ended narratives.

  5. External Consultant

    Synonyms: 
    External Evaluator
    Evaluation Option

    An external consultant is someone external to the organization who can be contracted to conduct the evaluation - sometimes they develop the evaluation design and sometimes they implement the design outlined in the Terms of Reference.

  6. Internal Staff

    Evaluation Option

    Conducting an evaluation using staff from the implementing agency rather than hiring external consultants.

  7. Peer review for meta-evaluation

    Evaluation Option

    Reviewing the evaluation by using peers from within the organisation or outside of the organisation

  8. Community

    Evaluation Option

    The community, particularly intended beneficiaries of an intervention, can undertake an evaluation or contribute to a combined team.

  9. Learning Alliances

    Evaluation Option

    The Learning Alliances approach was used by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), an international research institute based in Cali, Colombia, as a way for generating knowledge and fostering innovation processes. The authors indicated that it can be used to "strengthen capacities, generate and document development outcomes, identify future research needs or areas for collaboration, and inform public and private sector policy decisions" (Lundy, Gottret and Ashby, 2005).

  10. Standards, evaluative criteria and benchmarks

    Synonyms: 
    Benchmarks and standards
    Evaluation Option
    Standards by Christopher Meredith on Flickr

    One way of identifying the values that will be used in an evaluation is to develop explicit standards, evaluative criteria or benchmarks or to use existing relevant standards, criteria or benchmarks.

    [Picture: Christopher Meredith Flickr]

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