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  1. Tiny Tool Results Chain

    Evaluation Option

    Tiny tool results chain maps both positive and negative possible impacts from an intervention.

  2. Results Chain

    Synonyms: 
    Pipeline model, Logic Model, Input-Output model
    Evaluation Option

    "Results chain or pipeline logic models represent a program theory as a linear process with inputs and activities at the front and long-term outcomes at the end. Various models have been developed for different purposes each with relative advantages and disadvantages." Funnell, S. and Rogers, P. (2011) p 387

  3. Outcomes Hierarchy

    Synonyms: 
    Outcomes Chain, Theory of Change (TOC), Results Chain, Impact Pathways
    Evaluation Option
    Accent to the top photo by Steve Hillebrand

    An outcomes hierarchy shows all the outcomes (from short-term to longer-term) required to bring about the ultimate goal of an intervention.  Unlike results chains, it does not show the activities linked to these outcomes.

     

  4. Modus Operandi

    Evaluation Option

    Interventions create distinctive/characteristic patterns of effects. Scriven describes the modus operandi as a set of footprints:

    ‘Each cause has a set of footprints, a short one if it’s a proximate cause, a long one if it’s a remote cause, but in general the modus operandi is a sequence of intermediate or concurrent events or a set of conditions, or a chain of events, that has to be present when the cause is effective.’

  5. Delphi Study

    Synonyms: 
    Delphi Technique
    Evaluation Option
    Delphi photo by Navin Rajagopalan

    The Delphi technique is a quantitative option aimed at generating consensus. It solicits opinions from groups in an iterative process of answering questions. After each round the responses are summarised and redistributed for discussion in the next round. Through a process of convergence involving the identification of common trends and inspection of outliers, a consensus is reached.

  6. Check Results Match Expert Predictions

    Evaluation Option

    Expert predictions can be a useful part of developing the program theory. Program staff can draw expert predictions from the literature or by engaging a group of experts.

  7. Check Results Match a Statistical Model

    Evaluation Option

    Program staff may develop a statistical model as part of the project theory design. Statistical models can be useful tools to predict elements of the program:

    • Cost
    • Time
    • Comparison between groups
  8. Vote Counting

    Evaluation Option
    Old School Voting, Photo by Just Us 3

    Vote counting is a simple but limited method for synthesizing evidence from multiple evaluations, which involves simply  comparing the number of positive studies (studies showing benefit) with the number of negative studies (studies showing harm). It does not take into account the quality of the studies, the size of the samples, or the size of the effect.

  9. Snowball Sampling

    Evaluation Option
    Large Snowball, London N14 photo by Christine Matthews

    'Snowball or Chain Sampling is an option for locating information rich key informants and critical cases. The process begins by asking well situated people “Who knows a lot about ___?Whom should I talk to?” By asking a number of people who else to talk with, the snowball gets bigger and bigger as you accumulate new information-rich cases. 

  10. Realist Matrix

    Evaluation Option

    Realist matrices are a complementary approach to outcomes chains and other programme logic models. A realist matrix focuses on the causal mechanisms at work in a programme or project. It specifies what exactly in the programme creates the outcomes, and under what conditions.

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