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  1. Tiny Tool Results Chain

    Evaluation Option

    Tiny tool results chain maps both positive and negative possible impacts from an intervention.

  2. Results Chain

    Synonyms: 
    Pipeline model, Logic Model, Input-Output model
    Evaluation Option

    "Results chain or pipeline logic models represent a program theory as a linear process with inputs and activities at the front and long-term outcomes at the end. Various models have been developed for different purposes each with relative advantages and disadvantages." Funnell, S. and Rogers, P. (2011) p 387

  3. Outcomes Hierarchy

    Synonyms: 
    Outcomes Chain, Theory of Change (TOC), Results Chain, Impact Pathways
    Evaluation Option
    Accent to the top photo by Steve Hillebrand

    An outcomes hierarchy shows all the outcomes (from short-term to longer-term) required to bring about the ultimate goal of an intervention.  Unlike results chains, it does not show the activities linked to these outcomes.

     

  4. Modus Operandi

    Evaluation Option

    Interventions create distinctive/characteristic patterns of effects. Scriven describes the modus operandi as a set of footprints:

    ‘Each cause has a set of footprints, a short one if it’s a proximate cause, a long one if it’s a remote cause, but in general the modus operandi is a sequence of intermediate or concurrent events or a set of conditions, or a chain of events, that has to be present when the cause is effective.’

  5. Check Results Match Expert Predictions

    Evaluation Option

    Expert predictions can be a useful part of developing the program theory. Program staff can draw expert predictions from the literature or by engaging a group of experts.

  6. Check Results Match a Statistical Model

    Evaluation Option

    Program staff may develop a statistical model as part of the project theory design. Statistical models can be useful tools to predict elements of the program:

    • Cost
    • Time
    • Comparison between groups
  7. Realist Matrix

    Evaluation Option

    Realist matrices are a complementary approach to outcomes chains and other programme logic models. A realist matrix focuses on the causal mechanisms at work in a programme or project. It specifies what exactly in the programme creates the outcomes, and under what conditions.

  8. Propensity Scores

    Synonyms: 
    Propensity Score Matching
    Evaluation Option

    Propensity-score matching (PSM) is a quasi-experimental option used to estimate the difference in outcomes between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries that is attributable to a particular program.

  9. Check Timing of Outcomes

    Evaluation Option

    The program theory may predict the timing of outcomes. If so, the evaluator can check against these dates with the dates of actual changes and outcomes. This is another way of checking the results support causal attribution.

  10. Risk Assessment

    Evaluation Option

    Conducting a risk assessment involves identifying potential negative impacts, their likelihood of occurring and how they might be avoided.

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