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  1. Delphi Study

    Delphi Technique
    Evaluation Option
    Delphi photo by Navin Rajagopalan

    The Delphi technique is a quantitative option aimed at generating consensus. It solicits opinions from groups in an iterative process of answering questions. After each round the responses are summarised and redistributed for discussion in the next round. Through a process of convergence involving the identification of common trends and inspection of outliers, a consensus is reached.

  2. Vote Counting

    Evaluation Option
    Old School Voting, Photo by Just Us 3

    Vote counting is a simple but limited method for synthesizing evidence from multiple evaluations, which involves simply  comparing the number of positive studies (studies showing benefit) with the number of negative studies (studies showing harm). It does not take into account the quality of the studies, the size of the samples, or the size of the effect.

  3. Snowball Sampling

    Evaluation Option
    Large Snowball, London N14 photo by Christine Matthews

    'Snowball or Chain Sampling is an option for locating information rich key informants and critical cases. The process begins by asking well situated people “Who knows a lot about ___?Whom should I talk to?” By asking a number of people who else to talk with, the snowball gets bigger and bigger as you accumulate new information-rich cases. 

  4. Judgemental Matching

    Judgemental Matching of Comparison Groups
    Evaluation Option

    Judgemental Matching involves creating a comparison group by finding a match for each person or site in the treatment group based on researcher judgements about what variables are important.

  5. Key Informant

    Evaluation Option

    Asking experts in these types of programmes or in the community to predict what would have happened in the absence of the intervention.

  6. Realist Analysis of Testable Hypotheses

    Evaluation Option

    Realist analysis of testable hypotheses tests the program theory by developing a nuanced understanding of ‘What works for whom in what circumstances and in what respects, and how?’.

  7. Process Tracing

    Evaluation Option

    Process tracing is a case-based approach to causal inference which focuses on the use of clues within a case (causal-process observations, CPOs) to adjudicate between alternative possible explanations. 

  8. Difference-in-Difference

    Difference in difference, Double difference
    Evaluation Option

    Difference-in-difference involves comparing the before-and-after difference for the group receiving the intervention (where they have not been randomly assigned) to the before-after difference for those who did not.

  9. Regression Discontinuity

    RD Design, Regression Discontinuity Design
    Evaluation Option

    Regression Discontinuity Design (RDD) is a quasi-experimental evaluation option that measures the impact of an intervention, or treatment, by applying a treatment assignment mechanism based on a continuous eligibility index which is a variable with a continuous distribution. 

  10. Cost Benefit Analysis

    Evaluation Option
    California's largest wind farm, Altamont pass photo by kqedquest

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a technique used to compare the total costs of a programme/project with its benefits, using a common metric (most commonly monetary units). This enables the calculation of the net cost or benefit associated with the programme.