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  1. Standards, evaluative criteria and benchmarks

    Benchmarks and standards
    Evaluation Option
    Standards by Christopher Meredith on Flickr

    One way of identifying the values that will be used in an evaluation is to develop explicit standards, evaluative criteria or benchmarks or to use existing relevant standards, criteria or benchmarks.

    [Picture: Christopher Meredith Flickr]

  2. How to design and manage Equity-focused evaluations


    This guide from UNICEF is divided into two parts. It begins by defining equity and its importance and relevance today. It then unpacks the concept that is Equity-focused evaluation, explaining what its purpose should be and highlights potential challenges in its promotion and implementation.

  3. Interviews

    Evaluation Option
    Anna Varney interviews a fisherman in barangay Granada, Boljoon, Cebu by Jill Harris

    Interviewing is a fundamental methodology for both quantitative and qualitative social research and evaluation. Interviews are conversations between an investigator (interviewer) and a respondent (‘interviewees’, ‘informants’ or ‘sources’) in which questions are asked in order to obtain information. Interviews seek to collect data and narrative information in order to better understand the respondent’s unique perspectives, opinions, and world-views.

  4. ORID

    Evaluation Option

    ORID Is a specific facilitation framework that enables a focused conversation with a group of people in order to reach some point of agreement or clarify differences.

  5. Stacked Graph

    Area graph, Stacked bar graph, Stacked column graph
    Evaluation Option

    This type of visualisation depicts items stacked one on top (column) of the other or side-by-side (bar), differentiated by coloured bars or strips. A stacked graph is useful for looking at changes in, for example, expenditures added up over time, across several products or services. The graph integrates different data sets to create a richer picture of (the sum of) changes.

  6. Cost Effectiveness Analysis

    Evaluation Option
    Street circus photo by daniele.vigna

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is an alternative to cost-benefit analysis (CBA). The technique compares the relative costs to the outcomes (effects) of two or more courses of action. 

  7. Pie Chart

    Evaluation Option

    A pie chart is a divided circle, in which each slice of the pie represents a part of the whole. The categories that each slice represents are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Data with negative values cannot be displayed as a pie chart.

  8. Matrix Chart

    Heat map, Marimekko chart, Mosaic chart
    Evaluation Option

    A matrix chart shows relationships between two or more variables in a data set in grid format.  Essentially, the matrix chart is a table made up of rows and columns that present data visually and can be seen as the visual equivalent of a crosstabulation that divides data between the variables. The matrix chart is formed through at least two variables, for the X- and Y-categories. If there is a third or fourth variable, colour or other another dimension can be added to the matrix to represent it.

  9. Word Cloud

    tag cloud

    Word clouds or tag clouds are graphical representations of word frequency that give greater prominence to words that appear more frequently in a source text. The larger the word in the visual the more common the word was in the document(s). This type of visualization can assist evaluators with exploratory textual analysis by identifying words that frequently appear in a set of interviews, documents, or other text. It can also be used for communicating the most salient points or themes in the reporting stage. 

  10. Stories

    Anecdotes, Narrative Techniques, Story Telling
    Evaluation Option
    Image: AH-BJ-100920-5574 World Bank, photo taken by Arne Hoel

    Personal stories provide a glimpse into how people experience their lives and have long been an important part of evaluations -for example being reported in case studies. The process of collecting stories usually begins with an interview, whether in groups (e.g. through group interviews or “story circles”) or in individual interviews. There are different ways of recording the information, including standardised questionnaires and open-ended notes, and different narrative technique to draw out, code and aggregate fragments of data, including options used in the Most Significant Change approach, such as voting*, and the self-signification used in the SenseMaker™ software programme) varies. New techniques make it possible to conduct quantitative analyses based on qualitative, emotional and open-ended narratives.