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  1. Identify potential unintended results

    Task

    Many evaluations and logic models only focus on intended outcomes and impacts - but positive or negative unintended results can be important too.

    Use these options before a program is implemented to identify possible unintended outcomes and impacts, especially negative impacts (that make things worse not better) that should also be investigated and tracked.

    Make sure your data collection remains open to unintended results that you have not anticipated by including some open-ended questions in interviews and questionnaires, and by encouraging reporting of unexpected results.

  2. Check the results are consistent with causal contribution

    Task

    One of the tasks involved in understanding causes is to check whether the observed results are consistent with a cause-effect relationship between the intervention and the observed impacts.

  3. Compare results to the counterfactual

    Task

    One of the three tasks involved in understanding causes is to compare the observed results to those you would expect if the intervention had not been implemented - this is known as the 'counterfactual'.

  4. Specify the Key Evaluation Questions

    Task

    Key Evaluation Questions (KEQs) are the high-level questions that an evaluation is designed to answer - not specific questions that are asked in an interview or a questionnaire. Having an agreed set of Key Evaluation Questions (KEQs) makes it easier to decide what data to collect, how to analyze it, and how to report it.

  5. Report and support use

    Task

    From the first step of the evaluation process, even though it may be one of the last evaluation tasks, explicitly discuss the content, sharing, and use of reports during the initial planning of the evaluation and return to the discussion thereafter. Most importantly, identify who your primary intended users are. Use of the evaluation often depends on how well the report meets the needs and learning gaps of the primary intended users.

     
  6. Develop programme theory / theory of change

    Synonyms: 
    Logic model, Program logic, Programme logic, Causal model, Results chain, Intervention logic, ToC

    A programme theory explains how an intervention (a project, a programme, a policy, a strategy) is understood to contribute to a chain of results that produce the intended or actual impacts. 

    It can include positive impacts (which are beneficial) and negative impacts (which are detrimental). It can also show the other factors which contribute to producing impacts, such as context and other projects and programmes.

    Different types of diagrams can be used to represent a programme theory.  These are often referred to as logic models, as they show the overall logic of how the intervention is understood to work.

  7. Combine qualitative and quantitative data

    Task

    Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative data can improve an evaluation by ensuring that the limitations of one type of data are balanced by the strengths of another. This will ensure that understanding is improved by integrating different ways of knowing. Most evaluations will collect both quantitative data (numbers) and qualitative data (text, images), however it is important to plan in advance how these will be combined.

  8. Decide Purpose

    Task

    It is important that key stakeholders agree on the main purpose or purposes of evaluation, and be aware of any possible conflicts between purposes.

  9. Analyse data

    Task

    Analysing data to summarise it and look for patterns is an important part of every evaluation. The options for doing this have been grouped into two categories - quantitative data (number) and qualitative data (text, images).

  10. Develop reporting media

    Task

    You may develop a number of reports, in different formats, for different sets of stakeholders. Work with your primary users and stakeholders to determine when and in what form they want to receive evaluation reports. Also determine who you will involve in viewing draft and interim reports.

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