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  1. SWOT Analysis

    Evaluation Option

    The SWOT analysis is a classic strategic planning tool originating from business and marketing analysis that encourages groups (or individuals) to reflect on and assess the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of a particular strategy and how it can best be implemented.

  2. Line Graph

    Line Chart
    Evaluation Option

    A line graph is commonly used to display change over time as a series of data points connected by straight line segments on two axes. The line graph therefore helps to determine the relationship between two sets of values, with one data set always being dependent on the other set.

  3. Process Tracing

    Evaluation Option

    Process tracing is a case-based approach to causal inference which focuses on the use of clues within a case (causal-process observations, CPOs) to adjudicate between alternative possible explanations. 

  4. Theory-based Sampling

    Evaluation Option
    Untitled by Pieterjan Grobler

    Theory-based sampling involves selecting cases according to the extent to which they represent a particular theoretical construct. Purposive sampling is used as the population of the particular theoretical construct is difficult to determine.




  5. Stacked Graph

    Area graph, Stacked bar graph, Stacked column graph
    Evaluation Option

    This type of visualisation depicts items stacked one on top (column) of the other or side-by-side (bar), differentiated by coloured bars or strips. A stacked graph is useful for looking at changes in, for example, expenditures added up over time, across several products or services. The graph integrates different data sets to create a richer picture of (the sum of) changes.

  6. Treemap

    Heat map

    A treemap displays hierarchical relationships through a set of rectangles, sized proportionately to each data point, clustered together into one large rectangle. The rectangular screen space is divided into regions, and then each region is divided again for each level in the hierarchy. Treemaps show part-to-whole relationships with each rectangle in the tree map representing a category from the dataset. The nested regions show hierarchical relationships and allow for quantitative comparisons of attribute values.  A second variable for each category can also be coded using colour.

  7. Realist Analysis of Testable Hypotheses

    Evaluation Option

    Realist analysis of testable hypotheses tests the program theory by developing a nuanced understanding of ‘What works for whom in what circumstances and in what respects, and how?’.

  8. Bar Chart

    Column chart, Bar graph, Column graph

    Bar charts are often primarily used for displaying the quantities of qualitative or categorical data (e.g. age group, religious affiliation), although they can also be used for quantitative data if the number of unique scores in the data set is not large.

  9. Pie Chart

    Evaluation Option

    A pie chart is a divided circle, in which each slice of the pie represents a part of the whole. The categories that each slice represents are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Data with negative values cannot be displayed as a pie chart.

  10. Concept Mapping

    Evaluation Option
    Computer science mindmap by Till Tantau

    A concept map shows how different ideas relate to each other - sometimes this is called a mind map or a cluster map. This option can be used for the task of negotiating values and standards, and is useful for framing the evaluation. Concept Mapping can be used before, during or after implementation of a project/program/policy. It is necessarily done in a group and it requires sufficient time (the group needs to provide input individually and then meet) and specialist software.