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  1. Block Histogram


    A histogram is a graphical way of presenting a frequency distribution of quantitative data organised into a number equally spaced intervals or bins (e.g. 1-10, 11-20…). The interval range is selected to reduce the amount of information while still providing enough variability to picture the shape of the distribution.

  2. Bubble Chart

    Motion chart

    Commonly used on maps, and x/y-axis plots, or no plot at all, bubble charts communicate the raw count, frequency, or proportion of some variable where the size of the bubble reflects the quantity. Color-coding bubbles can represent a further categorization of the variable being graphed. It is also possible to add another dimension by showing the movement of bubbles over time (referred to as a motion chart).

  3. Treemap

    Heat map

    A treemap displays hierarchical relationships through a set of rectangles, sized proportionately to each data point, clustered together into one large rectangle. The rectangular screen space is divided into regions, and then each region is divided again for each level in the hierarchy. Treemaps show part-to-whole relationships with each rectangle in the tree map representing a category from the dataset. The nested regions show hierarchical relationships and allow for quantitative comparisons of attribute values.  A second variable for each category can also be coded using colour.

  4. Judgemental Matching

    Judgemental Matching of Comparison Groups
    Evaluation Option

    Judgemental Matching involves creating a comparison group by finding a match for each person or site in the treatment group based on researcher judgements about what variables are important.

  5. Realist Analysis of Testable Hypotheses

    Evaluation Option

    Realist analysis of testable hypotheses tests the program theory by developing a nuanced understanding of ‘What works for whom in what circumstances and in what respects, and how?’.

  6. Key Informant

    Evaluation Option

    Asking experts in these types of programmes or in the community to predict what would have happened in the absence of the intervention.

  7. Process Tracing

    Evaluation Option

    Process tracing is a case-based approach to causal inference which focuses on the use of clues within a case (causal-process observations, CPOs) to adjudicate between alternative possible explanations. 

  8. Lessons Learnt

    Lessons learned
    Evaluation Option

    Lessons learnt can develop out of the evaluation process as evaluators reflect on their experiences in undertaking the evaluation. Lessons can take the form of describing what should or should not be done, or describing the outcome of different processes.

  9. Theatre

    Evaluation Option

    There are several different ways of using theatre to communicate evaluation findings and engage intended users in responding to them.

  10. Evaluation Challenges


    Evaluation Challenges

    How do I evaluate a project/program/policy when the results will only be visible in the long term?

    How do I evaluate a project/program/policy when there is no baseline data?

    How do I evaluate a project/program/policy when there is no control group?

    How do I evaluate a project/program/policy?