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  1. C4D Hub: Understand causes and contributions

    Development Theme

    UNDERSTAND CAUSES is one of the seven clusters of R,M&E tasks in the Rainbow Framework. Most evaluations need to investigate what is causing any changes observed. This involve selecting options for investigating causal attribution and contribution.

  2. C4D Hub: Synthesise

    Development Theme

    SYNTHESISE is one of the seven clusters of R,M&E tasks in the Rainbow Framework. These tasks involve bringing together data and evidence into an overall conclusion and judgement.

    There are three tasks associated with SYNTHESISE. Click on the SYNTHESISE tasks below to see C4D specific options, advice and resources on bringing together data and findings:

  3. C4D Hub: Report and support use

    Development Theme

    REPORT AND SUPPORT USE is one of the seven clusters of R,M&E tasks in the Rainbow Framework. These tasks involve creating reports and content from the R,M&E, sharing findings, and supporting use of and learning from the R,M&E with the primary users. Although this may be one of the lasts tasks, planning should begin from the very first steps.

    There are five tasks associated with REPORT AND SUPPORT USE. Click on the REPORT AND SUPPORT USE tasks below to see C4D specific options, advice and resources on sharing and using R,M&E findings and outcomes:

  4. C4D R,M&E through the Rainbow Framework

    Development Theme

    The Rainbow Framework structures the main, practical 'tasks' involved in doing research, monitoring and evaluation (R,M&E) into seven themes or 'clusters'. 

    The C4D Resource Hub uses the Rainbow Framework structure to give practical recommendations on tools, methods and resources that are in keeping with the seven principles for C4D R,M&E (as adapted in the Evaluating C4D project), with links to C4D specific examples where possible.

  5. C4D Hub: Develop an M&E Framework

    Development Theme

    What is it?

    A Monitoring and Evaluation Framework outlines the overall RM&E plan for monitoring and evaluating across an entire program, or across different programs. It should specify the monitoring strategies, any studies, reviews or evaluations to do done, with details about data sources, timing, management processes, as well as an overall program theory/logic model. 

  6. C4D Hub: Simple, Complicated, Complex: meanings and implications

    Development Theme

    The Simple, Complicated, Complex typology

     

    Simple, ‘known’  

    Standardised – a single way to do it

    Works pretty much the same everywhere / for everyone

    Best practices can be recommended confidently

    Knowledge transfer

    Impact focus: did it work or is it still working?

  7. C4D: Participatory Matrix

    Development Theme

    Participation is a fundamental element of C4D, and should, where possible and appropriate, be incorporated into RM&E as a means of developing effective, innovative and sustainable C4D.

  8. C4D Hub: Compare results to a counterfactual (strategy 1)

    Development Theme

    What is it?

    One of the ways of understanding causes (i.e. the extent to which an intervention caused outcomes) is to compare the observed results to those you would expect if the intervention had not been implemented - this is known as the 'counterfactual'. There are three broad options for creating a counterfactual. These are:

  9. C4D Hub: Investigate possible alternative explanations (strategy 3)

    Development Theme

    What is it?

  10. C4D Hub: Analyse each Key Evaluation Question

    Development Theme

    Embedded within broad key questions for R,M&E there are often different types of smaller questions. The main types of questions are:

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