One common criticism of Theory of Change is that it is often used as a framework that fixes agreements rather than as a living, guiding tool that helps reflection and adaptation. However, formally agreed Theories of Change and realities on the ground can be very different. This policy brief explores this, and looks at the interactions between formally agreed Theories of Change and actual advocacy practice, within the context of a multi-country advocacy programme.
theory of change
El Protocolo de Evaluación del Impacto Cualitativo (QuIP, por sus siglas en inglés) es un enfoque de evaluación de impacto que se basa en el Análisis de Contribución. Los estudios de QuIP sirven para proporcionar una verificación independiente de la realidad de una teoría de cambio predeterminada que ayuda a las partes interesadas a evaluar, aprender de y demostrar el impacto social de su trabajo. El enfoque de QuIP coloca las voces de los beneficiarios del proyecto en el centro de la evaluación, permitiéndoles compartir y retroalimentar sus experiencias de una manera abierta, creíble y respetuosa.
Chris Lysy, of Lysy Design, (and also known as Fresh Spectrum's 'evaluation cartoonist'), recently made our day by storifying an example of a logic model Patricia Rogers had previously created for the UNICEF Impact Evaluation Series in Brief 2: Theory of Change. With a few simple changes, Chris has managed to turn a rather static diagram into something that is more visually appealing and understandable to stakeholders.
He's kindly let us share it with you here, and you can find the original post along with more of Chris' writing on data design on the Lysy Design website along with help in telling the story of your data if you need it.
There are a number of options when it comes to using software to help create a logic model. These range from generic word processing tools (Word, Powerpoint, or their Google Doc or Mac equivilants), to software that has been specifically tailored for visualising Theories of Change, like TOCO or Miradi. You should consider what resources you have to invest in software, both in terms of cost and in time to learn and use the features. If you only have a short timeframe and have simple needs, then a basic tool may suit you better than some of the more complex software available. It's important to investigate a few options and see what is going to be best for you.
Theory of Change Online (TOCO) is web-based software (no download required) that you can use to design and edit and store your Theory of Change, learn the concepts of theory of change, and capture your outcomes, indicators, rationales and assumptions in an interactive graphical environment.
The Visual Understanding Environment (VUE) is a concept and content mapping application, developed to support teaching, learning and research and for anyone who needs to organize, contextualize, and access digital information. Using a simple set of tools and a basic visual grammar consisting of nodes and links, faculty and students can map relationships between concepts, ideas and digital content.
Many evaluations include a process of developing logic models and theories of change – an explanation of how the activities of a program, project, policy, network or event are expected to contribute to particular results in the short-term and longer-term. They have been used for many years - versions can be seen in Carol Weiss’ 1972 book "Evaluation research: methods for assessing program effectiveness" - and they have been mainstreamed in many organisations
The Qualitative Impact Assessment Protocol (QuIP) is an impact evaluation approach that draws on Contribution Analysis. QuIP studies serve to provide an independent reality check of a predetermined theory of change which helps stakeholders to assess, learn from, and demonstrate the social impact of their work. QuIP’s approach places project beneficiaries’ voices at the centre of the evaluation, enabling them to share and feedback their experiences in an open, credible, and respectful way.