causal inference

Impact Evaluation A Guide for Commissioners and Managers

This guide, written by Elliot Stern builds on an initial report prepared for the UK Department for International Development (DFID) Broadening the range of designs and methods for impact evaluations. The impetus for this guide came from a ‘cross-funders group’ interested in helping decision-makers within civil society organisations and those that fund them to better understand how to commission, manage and use impact evaluations. 

Rethinking Social Inquiry: Diverse Tools, Shared Standards (Second Edition)

This second edition of Rethinking Social Inquiry has the aim of redirecting ongoing discussions of methodology in social and political science. The authors share a commitment to using diverse tools in the pursuit of research, and to shared standards for evaluating their use. The authors examine the relationship between quantitative and qualitative methods and focus on the study of causes and consequences, particularly on causal inference.

Causal Attribution Video

This video guide, produced by UNICEF, outlines three broad strategies for causal attribution: 1) estimating the counterfactual; 2) checking the consistency of evidence for the causal relationships made explicit in the theory of change; and 3) ruling out alternative explanations, through a logical, evidence-based process.