The C4D Evaluation Framework
The C4D Evaluation Framework was developed to reflect the needs and values of Communication for Development. The Framework is made up of seven interconnected principles. These principles guide our choices about R,M&E.
The C4D Evaluation Framework used in this Resource Hub is adapted from the framework published by Lennie and Tacchi(2013) (click here for more information).
Explore the links to each of the principles below to find:
· An overview of the principle
· Advice on applying the principle
· Commonly experienced challenges and strategies for overcoming
· Links to practical resources, toolkits and guides for applying the principle
INCLUSION; DIALOGUE; PARTNERSHIP; HUMAN RIGHTS BASED
Participation is a central principle for C4D, and therefore should be incorporated in the R,M&E of C4D. Participatory R,M&E is undertaken in partnership with children and adolescents, community members and other stakeholders, using processes that are culturally and socially appropriate, creative, and based on mutual trust, openness and dialogue.
CONTEXT; SYSTEMIC; BOUNDARIES; INTER-CONNECTIONS
Taking a holistic approach means considering the systems, structures and contexts within which people operate. This means seeking to understand the broader contexts and inter-connections between organisations, groups and individuals involved in a C4D initiative (directly or indirectly). This might include the different ‘communicative ecologies’(or communication contexts) that people experience.
EMERGENT; UNPREDICTABLE; CONTRADICTIONS; SELF-ORGANISATION
The principle of complexity draws our attention to the multiple and changing ‘interconnections’ and ‘inter-relationships’ in C4D initiatives. It highlights complicated aspects: where there are multiple organisations working in similar ways, multiple components or parts of the initiative, or where we know that C4D interventions will work differently in different contexts. It also highlights complex aspects: where change is not predictable but comes about through ‘adaptive’ responses to changing circumstances.
POWER; DIFFERENCE; EQUITY; MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES
Including different perspectives highlights the critical importance of paying attention to power. Our approach to R,M&E needs to actively address issues of equity and diversity by paying attention to gender, caste, class, ethnicity, age, status, education and other relevant differences. Design and implementation of RM&E can build upon the strengths and limitations of different evaluation approaches and methods; to find the right approaches for your evaluation questions, and include all relevant voices and perspectives.
TRANSPARENT; RIGOUR; MULTIPLE; SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY
Accountability means demonstrating results communities, partners, funders and policy makers. R,M&E that is rigorous, transparent and relevant will produce evidence for accountability. In C4D our primary responsibility is to be listening to, learning from and reporting to community groups and partners. Achieving accountability depends on having clear and shared expectations about what is to be evaluated, what the evaluation questions are, and how you will go about answering them. Understanding who you are accountable to also requires clarity.
PRAGMATIC; MIXED-METHODS; GROUNDED FLEXIBLE
To be most effective, R,M&E approaches and methods need to be grounded in local realities. This requires openness, freedom, flexibility and realism in planning and implementing R,M&E and in the selection of approaches, methodologies and methods. This approach aims to increase the usefulness of evaluation results, which should focus on intended, unintended, expected, unexpected, negative and positive change. Long-term engagement with organizations and communities ensures effectiveness and sustainability, and a long-term perspective on both evaluation and social change.
ACTION-LEARNING; ADAPTIVE; CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT; CRITICAL REFLECTION
In a learning-based approach RM&E is integrated into the whole programme cycle and involves all staff and stakeholders. This principle draws on some of the core principles of action learning and participatory action research (PAR), including iterative reflection on implementation for continual improvement. Involving a broad group of stakeholders in R,M&E requires attention to capacity development and learning processes and events.
The Evaluating C4D Resource Hub draws heavily on the following book: Lennie, J. & Tacchi, J. (2013) Evaluating Communication for Development: A Framework for Social Change. Earthscan/Routledge: London