This guide builds on work of HIVOS' experimentation with and learning about Theory of Change (ToC), including the work of its Theory of Change Learning Group (established 2010). The guide is divided into three parts: Part A introduces theory of change and Hivos’ perspective on ToC thinking: what it is, what
users should know before they start, and key features of ToC thinking that users need to understand in order to be able to use the approach effectively. Part B is a stepwise approach to guide users through the process of developing a ToC for different purposes, including information on how to use specific tools recommended for each step. Part C contains references to tools suggested in Part B, as well as resources and sites where
you can find more information about ToC use.
One common criticism of Theory of Change is that it is often used as a framework that fixes agreements rather than as a living, guiding tool that helps reflection and adaptation. However, formally agreed Theories of Change and realities on the ground can be very different. This policy brief explores this, and looks at the interactions between formally agreed Theories of Change and actual advocacy practice, within the context of a multi-country advocacy programme.