Participatory Rural Appraisal

Participatory Learning for Action

"Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) recently renamed Participatory Learning for Action (PLA), is a methodological approach that is used to enable farmers to analyse their own situation and to develop a common perspective on natural resource management and agriculture at village level.

PRA is an assessment and learning process that empowers farmers to create the information base they need for participatory planning and action. Outsiders contribute facilitation skills and external information and opinions. Many different tools have been developed for use in PRA. There are four main classes: tools used in group and team dynamics; tools for sampling; options for interviews and dialogue; and options for visualisation and preparing diagrams. Most countries have had some experience with PRA and local publications are available. IIED regularly reports on new developments in its PLA notes (Pretty et al 1995)." (Bie, 1998)


Bie, S. W. (1998). Participatory learning, planning and action toward LEISA. LEISA in perspective: 15 years ILEIA, 14(2-3), 27-31. Retrieved from

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Kate Roberts's picture
Kate Roberts

There is a series of publications called the PLA notes (referred to here) and they can be viewed and down loaded for the IIED (International Institute for Environment and Development) site. I found these publications full of practical and useful tips and stories from the field.

ritumishra76's picture
Ritu Kumar Mishra

I have downloaded some. Thank a lot. 


Ritu Kumar Mishra

ritumishra76's picture
Ritu Kumar Mishra

This is really very useful to me. Thanks a lot.


Ritu Kumar Mishra

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