Difference-in-difference involves comparing the before-and-after difference for the group receiving the intervention (where they have not been randomly assigned) to the before-after difference for those who did not.
- How Do We Know if a Program Made a Difference? This guide, written by Peter M. Lance, David K. Guilkey, Aiko Hattori and Gustavo Angeles for MEASURE Evaluation, outlines core statistical and econometric methods for program impact evaluation and includes a section on using the difference-in-difference model.
- Impact Evaluation in Practice: This book from the World Bank provides a detailed introduction to impact evaluations in the development field. Chapter Six focuses on using the difference-in-difference model.
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