Desperately Seeking Dissonance Identifying the Disconfirming Case in Qualitative Evidence Synthesis

This article from the Qualitative Health Research Journal outlines the research undertaken to discover how disconfirming cases are handled in reviews of qualitative research. It also outlines a number of methods that may be used to actively find disconfirming cases in review processes.


  • The Disconfirming Case in Qualitative
  • Evidence Syntheses: A Literature Survey
  • General Approaches to the Disconfirming Case
  • Procedures for Identifying the Disconfirming Case
  • Role of the Review Team
  • Selection of Review Methods
  • Use of Theory
  • Methods for Presentation of Findings
  • Findings From Exemplar  Methods for Identifying  the Disconfirming Case


Booth, A., Carroll, C., Ilott, I., Low, L. L., & Cooper, K. (2013). Desperately seeking dissonance: identifying the disconfirming case in qualitative evidence synthesis. Qualitative Health Research, 23(1), 126 - 141. Retrieved from

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