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  • Ensure diverse perspectives are included, especially those with little voice

    Make explicit the experiences and values of key stakeholders, especially intended beneficiaries.
    Method
  • Thematic coding

    Thematic coding is a form of qualitative analysis that involves recording or identifying passages of text or images that are linked by a common theme or idea allowing you to index the text into categories and therefore establish a “framewor
    Method
  • Evaluation plans and operations checklist

    This checklist from the Evaluation Checklists Project provides a guide to those interested in conducting a preliminary, formative metaevaluation.
    Resource
  • Goal Attainment Scaling: An evaluation tool to improve evaluation design and data collection

    This document explains the history and application of the Goal Attainment Scales (GAS), providing clear examples and scale table templates.
    Resource
  • Outlier sampling

    Outlier sampling focuses on the extremes – the end-points of the normal distribution bell-curve.
    Method
  • Confirming and disconfirming sampling

    Confirming and disconfirming cases assist the evaluator in the confirmatory fieldwork stage of an evaluation.
    Method
  • Theory-based sampling

    Theory-based sampling involves selecting cases according to the extent to which they represent a particular theoretical construct.
    Method
  • Criterion sampling

    Criterion sampling involves the identification of a particular criterion of importance, articulation of this criterion, and systematic review and study of cases that meet the criterion.
    Method
  • Snowball sampling

    Snowball or chain sampling is a method for locating information rich key informants and critical cases.
    Method
  • Critical case sampling

    A critical case is one that permits analytic generalisation, as, if a theory can work in the conditions of the critical case, it's likely to be able to work anywhere.
    Method
  • Homogenous sampling

    Homogenous sampling involves selecting similar cases to further investigate a particular phenomenon or subgroup of interest. The logic of homogenous sampling is in contrast to the logic of maximum variation sampling.
    Method
  • Maximum variation sampling

    A maximum variation sample contains cases that are purposefully as different from each other as possible. This type of sampling is useful for examining range in large national or global programs.
    Method
  • Intensity sampling

    Intensity sampling uses the same logic as extreme case sampling – that much can be learned from the ends of the distribution range – but with less emphasis on the extremes.
    Method
  • Typical case sampling

    Typical case sampling allows the evaluator to develop a profile of what is agreed as average, or normal. These profiles can serve as illustrations for those unfamiliar with the program.
    Method
  • Data cleaning

    Data cleaning involves the detection and removal (or correction) of errors and inconsistencies in a data set or database due to data corruption or inaccurate entry. 
    Method
  • Data rehearsal

    Data rehearsal, a technique developed by Michael Patton, involves developing simulated reports of data before data collection and then workshopping these with primary intended users to see if this will meet their information needs.
    Method
  • Public consultations

    Public consultations are usually conducted through public meetings to provide an opportunity for the community to raise issues of concern and respond to options.
    Method
  • Triangulation

    Triangulation facilitates validation of data through cross verification from more than two sources.
    Method
  • Enriching

    ‘Enriching’ is achieved by using qualitative work to identify issues or obtain information on variables not obtained by quantitative surveys. 
    Method
  • Examining

    ‘Examining’ refers to generating hypotheses from qualitative work to be tested through the quantitative approach.
    Method
  • Explaining

    ‘Explaining’ involves using qualitative work to understand unanticipated results from quantitative data.  
    Method
  • Sequential data gathering

    Sequencing is one way of combining qualitative and quantitative data by alternating between them.
    Method
  • Parallel data gathering

    Qualitative and quantitative data are gathered at the same time. For example, a closed-ended questionnaire to many service users is done at the same time as semi-structured observations of the service center.
    Method
  • Component design

    Component design is an approach to mixed methods evaluation that conducts qualitative components of the evaluation separately to quantitative components and then combines the data at the time of report writing.  
    Method
  • Integrated design

    Integrated Design is an approach to mixed options evaluation where qualitative and quantitative data are integrated into an overall design.  
    Method
  • Convenience sampling

    Convenience sampling selection is based on the ease or "convenience" of gaining access to a sample.
    Method
  • Volunteer sampling

    In many research contexts, sampling simply involves asking for volunteers.
    Method
  • How is M&E useful in the program cycle? Monitoring and evaluation in climate action - Video 3

    In this video, Jenean Pretorius (CLEAR-AA) discuss how monitoring and evaluation can be used throughout the program cycle.
    Resource
  • What is monitoring and evaluation (M&E)? Monitoring and evaluation in climate action - Video 2

    In this video, Gabriel Weber Costa (CLEAR-LAB) talks about monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and how we can use them to inform decisions in climate action.
    Resource
  • Personal stories

    Personal stories provide qualitative data about how people experience their lives and can be used to make sense of the past and to understand possible futures.
    Method
  • Mobile data collection

    Mobile Data Collection (MDC) is the use of mobile phones, tablets or personal digital assistants (PDAs) for programming or data collection.
    Method
  • Keypad technology

    Keypads are used in group meetings to gauge audience response to presentations and provide valuable feedback in large group settings. 
    Method