Fundamentals of implementation research

This module introduces the language, concepts, tools and strategies utilised in Implementation Research (IR). The information provided is designed to be practical and useful for researches and program implementers as an orientation to IR.


  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Sub-Module 1: Defining implementation research
  • Purpose of implementation research
  • Defining characteristics of IR
  • What IR is and is not
  • The implementation process
  • Implementation challenges
  • IR questions
  • Sub-Module 2: Implementation research frameworks
  • IR frameworks
  • Selecting frameworks
  • Sub-Module 3: Implementation research questions and applications
  • Identifying IR constraints
  • Formulating IR questions
  • Prioritizing IR questions
  • Engaging stakeholders in IR
  • Disseminating IR results
  • Appendices
  • Other implementation science definitions in use
  • The importance of fidelity in the implementation process
  • ExpandNet example
  • ExpandNet framework for scaling up
  • Table 1. Examples of HIV-related IR questions
  • Table 2. Questions for different IR questions
  • Table 3. Example IR projects and questions
  • Diffusion of innovations
  • PEPFAR implementation science framework
  • CDC Replicating Effective Interventions (REP) framework
  • RE_AIM framework
  • CORRECT criteria (ExpandNet)
  • Scalability checklist (Management Systems International)
  • Evaluability (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation)
  • Viability (CDC)
  • Table of constraints to improving access to priority health interventions
  • Questions for different IR types
  • IR decisions in PMTCT services
  • Table of information needs
  • References


USAID. Measure Evaluation. (2012) Fundamentals of Implementation Research. Retrieved from: