Tiny tool results chain

Tiny tool results chain maps both positive and negative possible impacts from an intervention.


Results Chain Analysis

"With our activities, we create outputs that others can use. This leads to changes in those people or institutions or communities, which can then have further results on others, or on ourselves. Communities can analyse this chain of effects. The tool starts from the project outputs and asks a number of questions:

  1. What are the important contributions or outputs of the project?
  2. How did you make use of these products or services? How did you apply the new knowledge or skills?
  3. What are the changes in your situation that resulted directly from this use of outputs? What were the benefits? What were the undesired changes, if any?
  4. To which lasting and significant changes in your life and your environment did this outcome contribute?

After answering these questions, community members are asked to give answers to these questions and put them in a logical sequence of what led to what (cause-effect relationships). It helps if the answers are written up, or visualised, either in a chain, or in a tree structure." (Causemann et al. 2010)


Causemann, B., Gohl, E., Brenner, V., & Rithaa, M. NGO-IDEAs, (2010). Measuring change in communities and groups. Retrieved from website: http://www.dochas.ie/Shared/Files/4/NGO_Ideas_Tiny_tools-Handout[1].pdf (archived link)

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