Communication for development (C4D) project

About the Evaluating C4D Resource Hub

The Evaluating C4D Resource Hub has been developed as part of a research partnership with RMIT University, the University of Hyderabad and UNICEF Communication for Development (C4D). While it has been developed in response to the needs of UNICEF staff (including from C4D, program teams, and Planning Monitoring & Evaluation) and their partners (including government partners, implementing partners and consultants and researchers), it is a public good available for all C4D and related organisations to use and adapt.

Our Framework and Approach

C4D initiatives often relate to complex and interrelated cultural and contextual factors with the aim of bringing about social and behavioural changes. C4D often includes dialogue and community participation. C4D is usually not able to bring about change on its own and must work closely with other sectors, but equally, the sustainability and effectiveness of development sectors is often dependent on good C4D.

These features of C4D mean that there are particular challenges when doing research, monitoring and evaluation (RM&E) of C4D. Approaches underpinned by the C4D Evaluation Framework proposed by June Lennie and Jo Tacchi in their book, Evaluating Communication for Development: A Framework for Social Change, are more likely to be useful for C4D RM&E.

The Evaluating C4D Resource Hub is designed to help you make choices about tools and resources that are consistent with the principles underpinning C4D and building on the tasks and methods in the BetterEvaluation Rainbow Framework.

Adapting and applying the framework

C4D Logo

​Lennie & Tacchi’s (2013) framework was adapted as part of the collaborative project with UNICEF. Through the iterative process of applying and reflecting the following adaptations have been made: the complex and emergent components were assimilated into one principle, and accountable was added as a principle.

Cases emerging from practice that exemplify the recommended approaches are included throughout the C4D Hub.


The Evaluating C4D Resource Hub is an outcome of the Evaluating Communication for Development: supporting adaptive and accountable development project (2014-2017).

Project Partners: RMIT University, UNESCO Chair for Community Media/University of Hyderabad, UNICEF Communication for Development, Eidos Institute (2014-2016).

Funding: Australian Research Council (LP130100176), UNICEF and Eidos Institute.

Lead investigators: Professor Jo Tacchi, Professor Patricia Rogers, Professor Vinod Pavarala, Dr Linje Manyozo, Dr Rafael Obregon, and Bruice Muirhead.

Postdoctoral Researcher and lead author on the C4D Hub: Dr Jessica Noske-Turner.

Research assistants: Ho Anh Tung and Jharna Brahma.

C4D on BetterEvaluation