Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability

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The report:

  • evaluates evidence that recent observed changes in climate have already affected a variety of physical and biological systems and concludes that these effects can be attributed to global warming;
  • makes a detailed assessment of the impacts of future climate change and sea-level rise on ecosystems, water resources, agriculture and food security, human health, coastal and low-lying regions and industry and settlements;
  • provides a complete new assessment of the impacts of climate change on major regions of the world (Africa, Asia, Australia/New Zealand, Europe, Latin America, North America, polar regions and small islands);
  • considers responses through adaptation;
  • explores the synergies and trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation;
  • evaluates the key vulnerabilities to climate change, and assesses aggregate damage levels and the role of multiple stresses.


  • Introduction to the Report
  • Summary for Policymakers
  • Technical Summary
  • Chapter 1: Assessment of Observed Changes and Responses in Natural and Managed Systems - [ Supplementary Material ]
  • Chapter 2: New Assesment Methods and the Characterisation of Future Conditions
  • Chapter 3: Fresh Water Resources and their Management
  • Chapter 4: Ecosystems, their Properties, Goods and Services
  • Chapter 5: Food, Fibre, and Forest Products
  • Chapter 6: Coastal Systems and Low-Lying Areas
  • Chapter 7: Industry, Settlement and Society
  • Chapter 8: Human Health
  • Chapter 9: Africa
  • Chapter 10: Asia
  • Chapter 11: Australia and New Zealand
  • Chapter 12: Europe
  • Chapter 13: Latin America
  • Chapter 14: North America
  • Chapter 15: Polar Regions (Arctic and Antarctic)
  • Chapter 16: Small Islands
  • Chapter 17: Assessment of Adaptation Practices, Options, Constraints and Capacity
  • Chapter 18: Inter-Relationships Between Adaptation and Mitigation - [Supplementary Material ]
  • Chapter 19: Assessing Key Vulnerabilities and the Risk from Climate Change
  • Chapter 20: Perspectives on Climate Change and Sustainability
  • Cross-Chapter Case Studies
  • Appendices I-V: Glossary, Contributors, Reviewers, Acronyms, Permissions


Parry, M. L., Canziani, O. F., Palutikof, J. P., van der Linden, P. J.,  & Hanson, C. E.,  (Eds.), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, (2007). Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Retrieved from: