C4D Hub: Analyse each key evaluation question

Embedded within broad key questions for R,M&E there are often different types of smaller questions.

Main types of questions

Descriptive questions

Asking what is the context/situation and what has happened.

Answer by:

Communication for Development (C4D) : 
Communication for Development (C4D) : 
Communication for Development (C4D) : 
Communication for Development (C4D) : 
Communication for Development (C4D) : 
Communication for Development (C4D) : 

Causal questions

Asking about what has contributed to the changes that have been observed.

Answer by one or a combination of the methods for:

Communication for Development (C4D) : 

Evaluative questions

Asking about whether the program is a success or the best method.

Answer by:

Communication for Development (C4D) : 

See also Determine what 'success' looks like, part of FRAME.

Action questions

Asking about what should be done based on the findings.

Answer by:

Communication for Development (C4D) : 


You can read more about these four types of questions in the Rainbow Framework. The ways of answering your KEQs will depend on what type of question you are asking.

Example: Deconstructing a question

The section below deconstructs the Key Questions that were listed in a Terms of Reference for a C4D Assessment into smaller descriptive, evaluative, causal or action questions.

Key question 1

What has been the visibility of the campaign and level of engagement of the general public in the UNICEF-led social media portals such as Facebook, UNICEF Viet Nam and UN websites, YouTube channel etc.?

Smaller, embedded questions

  1. What kind of content was posted on social media (descriptive)
  2. What kind of engagement was there on the social media portals (descriptive)
  3. How rich was the engagement (evaluative)

Key question 2

How effective has the outreach of the campaign's interventions in the community been, with a focus on how specific target groups of participants interpreted or made sense of media messages (with reference to teachers, parents, caregivers, children; local authorities at provincial, district and commune levels; and community-based networks (Women's Union and Youth's Union)?

Smaller, embedded questions

  1. How did specific groups interpret and make sense of the messages? (descriptive)

  2. To what extent did they make sense of the messages in the ways intended? (evaluative)

Key question 3

To what extent has the campaign reportedly contributed to raising knowledge and influencing positive attitudes toward ending VAC among target groups of participants across the evaluated channels of communication?

Smaller, embedded questions

  1. What changes in knowledge and attitudes have occurred and for who? (descriptive)
  2. What has contributed to these changes? (causal)

Key question 4

What worked well and what are areas for improvement in relation to the main messages of the campaign: violence against children is not justifiable, violence against children is preventable, speak out to end violence against children and violence against children is everyone's business?

Smaller, embedded questions

  1. What has worked (and not worked) about the messages, for whom, and in what circumstances? (evaluative)
  2. How can we improve? (action)

Key question 5

What factors (e.g. socio-cultural, ethical, moral, economic, etc) impeded or enhanced key attitudinal and behavioural interventions?

Smaller, embedded questions

  1. What were the bottlenecks for whom? (causal)

Key question 6

What are lessons learnt from the project and recommendations for the next phase's interventions with a focus on community-based engagement for action?

Smaller, embedded questions

  1. What should we keep doing, what should we stop doing, what should we do better, and what should we start doing? (action)
  2. How can we improve the design and implementation? (action)
  3. What is the best way to design a community-based engagement program? (evaluative)

'C4D Hub: Analyse each key evaluation question' is referenced in: