Combine qualitative and quantitative data

Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative data can improve an evaluation by ensuring that the limitations of one type of data are balanced by the strengths of another.

This will ensure that understanding is improved by integrating different ways of knowing. Most evaluations will collect both quantitative data (numbers) and qualitative data (text, images), however it is important to plan in advance how these will be combined.


When data are gathered

When data are combined

Purpose of combining data



Caracelli, Valerie J. and Greene, Jennifer C. (1997). "Crafting mixed-option evaluation design." In J. C. Greene and V. J. Caracelli (eds.), Advances in mixed-option evaluation: The challenges and benefits of integrating diverse paradigms. New Directions for Program Evaluation, No. 74. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, pp. 19-32.460 Carvalho, S. and H. White. (1997) ‘Combining the quantitative and qualitative approaches to poverty measurement and analysis’, Technical Paper 366. The World Bank: Washington D.C.466 Greene, J. (2007) Mixed Options in Social Inquiry.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.465 Greene, Jennifer C., Caracelli, Valerie J. and Graham, Wendy F. (1989). "Toward a conceptual framework for mixed-option evaluation design." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11(3), pp. 255-74.459

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