C4D: Develop reporting media

What is it?

Research, monitoring and evaluation reports can be in different formats and be shared using different media. Working with different groups, users or stakeholders (see Identify reporting requirements) determine the best format for the reports. The structure of an RM&E reporting media can do a great deal to encourage the succinct reporting of direct answers to key questions, backed up by enough detail about the evaluative reasoning and methodology to demonstrate the logic and the evidence base. The products may include a traditional, written evaluation report, and other products tailored to specific groups, such as an evaluation summary, policy brief, newsletter, presentation, video, etc.

General information

The Rainbow Framework includes guidance on traditional, written reports. It also includes ideas and methods for other reporting formats. In addition, Manager's Guide to Evaluation includes (Step 8) guidance for commissioners in relation to their role in guiding the production of reporting media, and (Step 9, sub-step 1) making reports accessible and engaging with stakeholders to make the findings accessible.  

Applying the C4D Principles


Reporting media can be co-created by some or all of the people and groups involved in the R,M&E. This is particularly useful as a strategy to ensure that results are communicated in appropriate and accessible ways. 


While there are many great methods that may be ideal for communicating with different groups, it is also important to be realistic about how many different methods are feasible. There may need to be trade-offs in relation to how many different media are used, the quality of production and other factors.

Recommended methods and adaptations for C4D

  • This is an RM&E task to which C4D should bring particular strengths. 

    The Rainbow Framework lists many methods that would be consistent with the C4D Evaluation Framework, including:


'C4D: Develop reporting media' is referenced in: