Structure of government

The structure of government refers to the organisational setup and functioning of the national (or subnational) government, which can have a significant impact on M&E activities. Understanding the governmental landscape is crucial for several reasons. Firstly, the timing of elections can heavily influence the focus and priorities of politicians and government ministries. During election cycles, there may be less attention and resources devoted to long-term M&E activities, as the immediate focus shifts to election-related matters. Secondly, elections can lead to a turnover in members of parliament, which could result in changes in policy direction, including those related to M&E. This turnover may affect the continuity and effectiveness of existing M&E systems.


In a federal government like Mexico, the power of state governors is such that the social law was only able to cover the M&E of the federal government. Implementing evaluation in states has to be done through negotiations with multiple states. In a unitary state like Uganda and Chile, a national M&E policy is easily enforceable across all spheres of government.

In a country with two chambers in parliament, like the Philippines, both chambers need to support legislation changes affecting M&E. In countries with a single parliamentary chamber, such as Sri Lanka and Uganda, there is a single chamber that needs to support these developments.

In some cases, a regional dimension needs to be included. For example, in the Caribbean, CARICOM member states have signed a commitment with the community for developing and implementing results-based management (RBM) policies. Therefore, any progress in this area would consider CARICOM's elements and be communicated to the community. CARICOM has a role as a coordinating regional institution that is not the case for other regions.


Global Evaluation Initiative (2022). MESA Guidance Note: Diagnostic Tool for a Monitoring and Evaluation Systems Analysis. Retrieved from

'Structure of government' is referenced in: