Bradford Hill criteria for causal inference

Based on a presentation at the 2015 ANZEA Conference, this free downloadable book presents the Bradford Hill criteria and discusses some ways of using them in practice to draw causal conclusions.

The resource begins by asserting that humans are not especially good at logical reasoning and understanding causation; we hold too many pre-existing biases. The Bradford Hill criteria are then offered as a method to help us "weigh the evidence for or against various possible interpretations of cause and effect". The criteria are not claimed to enable us to gather "indisputable evidence for or against a cause-and-effect hypothesis" but are suggested as an upgrade to the way we think about making reasoned judgements.

An easy-to-read guide to using the criteria is provided in a clear and concise format.


King, J. (2015). Bradford Hill Criteria for Causal Inference. Retrieved from:

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