Brief introduction to the 12 steps to data cleaning

Written by Associate Professor of Evaluation, Statistics, and Measurement at the University of Tennessee, Jenifer Morrow, the Brief Introduction to the 12 steps to data cleaning is a slide presentation that provides a concise overview to the importance and processes of data cleaning for effective evaluation.


  • Importance of data cleaning
  • If we don't clean our data
  • Create a data code book 
  • Create a data analysis plan
  • Perform initial frequencies - Round 1
  • Check for coding mistakes
  • Modify and create variables
  • Frequencies and descriptives - Round 2
  • Search for outliers
  • Assess for normality
  • Dealing with missing data
  • Examine cell sample size
  • Frequencies and descriptives - The finale
  • Assumption testing
  • Some helpful resources


Morrow, J 2013. Brief Introduction to Data Cleaning, University of Tennessee, Retrieved from

'Brief introduction to the 12 steps to data cleaning' is referenced in: