Causal criteria methods manual

This manual details the 8-step causal criteria framework, a method that can be used to integrate information from different data sources.

It demonstrates how a Multiple Lines and Levels of Evidence (MLLE) approach can be used to address questions of causality.


  • The 8-step Causal Criteria Framework - p4
  • Process for weighting evidence  - p22
  • Reporting conclusions - p28
  • Causal criteria example  - p30
  • Glossary  - p34
  • Acknowledgements - p36
  • References - p36


Norris R, Nichols S, Ransom G, Liston P, Barlow A, and Mugodo J (2008) Causal Criteria Methods Manual. Methods for applying the multiple lines and levels of evidence (MLLE) approach for addressing questions of causality, eWater Cooperative Research Centre, & Institute for Applied Ecology, School of Resource Environment & Heritage Science, University of Canberra. Retrieved from (archived)

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