The environment and disease: Association or causation?

In this original article from 1965, Sir Austin Bradford Hill, Professor Emeritus of Medical Statistics, lays out what will ultimately come to be known as the Bradford Hill criteria.

Presented as the President's Address at the Royal Society of Medicine, the article is detailed but quite readable. Within the context of Occupational Medicine, Sir Bradford Hill asks "in what circumstances can we pass from [an] observed association to a verdict of causation?". He then describes the nine criteria providing examples to illustrate the points.


Hill, A.B. (1965). The environment and disease: association or causation? Proc R Soc Med. 58(5):295.

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