Environmental flows monitoring and assessment framework

This resource from the Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology provides a framework for assessing environmental flow management plans.

It lays out the key steps of the framework and covers how to define the scope of the program, select variables, and design, optimise and implement study designs.

The report includes a discussion of Multiple lines and levels of evidence (MLLE), in which it is noted that the method can be used as part of monitoring programs in ecological contexts. In an appendix of the resource, the authors further summarise the MLLE technique; they cover where the technique could be used, describe what is meant by a line of evidence and a level of evidence, and provide details of the trial of the method in flow-ecology.


Cottingham P., Quinn G., Norris R., King A., Chessman B. and Marshall C. (2005). Environmental Flows Monitoring and Assessment Framework. Technical report. CRC for Freshwater Ecology, Canberra.

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