Integrating survey and ethnographic methods to evaluate conditional cash transfer programs

This paper describes the quantitative and qualitative research designs for survey and ethnographic methods have been combined in the evaluations of conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs for the governments of Nicaragua and Turkey. Based on these evaluations it discusses the relative benefits of quantitative and qualitative approaches for studying CCTs, and provides examples of how findings of these different approaches complemented, explained, illuminated, or contradicted each other.


  1. Introduction 1
  2. Social Protection and Conditional Cash Transfer Programs 2
  3. Conditional Cash Transfers Programs in Nicaragua and Turkey 4
  4. Combining Survey and Ethnographic Methods for the Evaluation of CCT Programs 6
  5. Exploring the Benefits of Mixed Method Research and the Contributions of Ethnographic Approaches in Program Evaluation: Selected Research Findings 15
  6. Conclusion: Q-Squared or Big Q+small q? Reflections on the Status of Mixed-Method Research for Social Program Evaluation 21
  7. References


Adato M, 2008, Integrating Survey and Ethnographic Methods to Evaluate Conditional Cash Transfer Programs, Food Consumption and Nutrition Division, International Food Policy Research Institute, Supported by CGIAR. Retrieved from