Using the context, input, process, and product evaluation model (CIPP) as a comprehensive framework

This Journal article, in the context of education, provides an overview of what the CIPP model is, in which circumstances it is useful, and finally provides a practical example of how the model was used.


"Planning, implementing, and assessing a service-learning project can be a complex task because service-learning projects often involve multiple constituencies and aim to meet both the needs of service providers and community partners. In this article, Stufflebeam’s Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) evaluation model is recommended as a framework to systematically guide the conception, design, implementation, and assessment of service-learning projects, and provide feedback and judgment of the project’s effectiveness for continuous improvement. This article (1) explores the CIPP evaluation model’s theoretical roots and applications, (2) delineates its four components, (3) analyzes each component’s role in a service-learning project’s success, and (4) discusses how the model effectively addresses Service-Learning Standards for Quality Practice. This article illustrates the application and evaluation of the model in a teacher-education service-learning tutoring project." (Zhang et al., 2011)


The article is divided into several sections, as listed below:

  • Approaches for Evaluating Projects
  • What the CIPP Evaluation Model Can Do
  • Planning, Implementing, and Assessing Service-Learning Projects: A Multifaceted Task in Need of a Guiding Framework
  • Stufflebeam’s Context, Input, Process, and Product Evaluation Model: An Improvement Accountability Approach
  • Understanding the Model
  • The Context, Input, Process, and Product Evaluation Model’s Linkage to Service-Learning Standards for Quality Practice
  • Applying the Model to a Teacher-Education Service-Learning Tutoring Project
  • Assessing Community Needs Using Context Evaluation
  • Formulating Plans Using Input Evaluation
  • Monitoring Progress Using Process Evaluation
  • Assessing Impact Using Product Evaluation


Zhang, G., Zeller, N., Griffith, R., Metcalf, D., Williams, J., Shea, C., & Misulis, K. (2011). Using the Context, Input, Process, and Product Evaluation Model (CIPP) as a Comprehensive Framework to Guide the Planning, Implementation, and Assessment of Service-learning Programs. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 15(4), 57-83.