Using (Reach and) Results Chains to Understand (Plan, Measure and Evaluate) Complex Multi-level Interventions

A powerpoint put together by Steve Montague. It addresses the problem that our mental models are too simplistic and proposes that evaluators need to recognise reach, the intended target of influence by a program or organisation, as well as results. In addition, Montague proposes that evaluators should facilitate evaluative activities and learning, create evaluative information, take a systems approach adapted to linear culture, and use a common lense and language.


  • Agenda
  • Theories of Change and Results Logic
  • Logic Model Implications
  • The [International] 'Classic' Results Logic (Rogers 2006)
  • The [Canadian] 'Classic' Results Logic
  • Reach Defined
  • Logic Models and Frameworks Without Reach
  • The Findings from 3 Year Review
  • Adherence, Averages and Aggregations Hide the Reality and Hinder Analysis
    • A General Results Map
    • Conditions-Results-Indicators: A G&C Program to Improve Health of At Risk Group
  • An Example [Quasi-Hypothetical]
    • The Logic of the Problem (preventable harm, risk or threat)
    • The Logic of the Solution (a support program to reduce harm)
  • Making it Practical for Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Making it Practical for Results Planning
  • Case: The Canadian Cancer Society
    • Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)
    • A Basic Results Chain With Key Questions
    • A Related Sequence of Needs / Problems
    • Sunsafe Example 
  • Public (Health) Management: Conclusions


Montague, S. (2011). Using (Reach and) Results Chains to Understand (Plan, Measure and Evaluate) Complex Multi-level Interventions. (Powerpoint). The Evaluation Centre for Complex Health Interventions. from