Making choices in health: WHO guide to cost-effectiveness analysis

This detailed guide provides investigators with a rigorous technical discussion of the cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) procedure, written from a public health perspective, as a method for assessing the efficiency of an intervention.

Particular care is taken in the guidance to demonstrate how to maximise the generalisability of results across settings.


Part I of the guide offers
  • a brief description of CEA
  • overview of CEA study design,
  • guidance on cost estimation, discounting, uncertainty, and sensitivity analysis,
  • policy uses of CEA, and
  • reporting results.

Part II of the guide, in turn, offers several supporting background papers originally published in journals.


Tan-Torres Edejer, T., Baltussen, R., Adam, T., Hutubessy, R., Acharya, A., Evans, D. B., & Murray, C. J. L. World Health Organization, (2003). Making choices in health: Who guide to cost-effectiveness analysis. Retrieved from website:

'Making choices in health: WHO guide to cost-effectiveness analysis' is referenced in: