In many research contexts, sampling simply involves asking for volunteers.
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- This option uses a series of still photographs or videos taken over a period of time to discern changes taking place in the environment or activities of a community.
- Crosstabulation (or crosstab) is a basic part of survey research in which researchers can get an indication of the frequency of two variables (e.g.
- Parametric inferential tests are carried out on data that follow certain parameters.
- A network diagram uses a set of nodes and connecting lines to display of how people (or other elements) in a network are connected. It is usually a product of social network analysis.
- A matrix chart shows relationships between two or more variables in a data set in grid format.
- A histogram is a graphical way of presenting a frequency distribution of quantitative data organised into a number equally spaced intervals or bins (e.g. 1-10, 11-20…).
- Stacked graphs depict items stacked one on top (column) of the other or side-by-side (bar), differentiated by coloured bars or strips.
- A time series is a collection of observations of well-defined data items obtained through repeated measurements over time.
- The executive summary of an evaluation report is a shortened version of the full report – usually one to four pages – that highlights findings and recommendations and is placed at the front of the report.
- Interim (or progress) reports present the interim, preliminary, or initial evaluation findings.
- Short communication formats—such as bulletins, briefs, newsletters, blogs and brochures—can be used to highlight particular findings or angles on the evaluation.
- These days, having a website is common practice for development organizations working beyond the community level. This has opened the possibilities of disseminating information such as that coming from evaluations.
- Flip charts are large sheets of paper, usually positioned on a tripod, to be used with thick and differently coloured marking pens.
- Structuring presentations with a series of powerpoint slides is now the most common way of presenting information to groups.
- Geo-tagging is the process of adding geographic information about digital content, within “metadata” tags - including latitude and longitude coordinates, place names and/or other positional data.
- Personal stories provide qualitative data about how people experience their lives and can be used to make sense of the past and to understand possible futures.
- Seasonal calendars are useful for evaluation as they can help analyse time-related cyclical changes in data.
- A frequency table provides collected data values arranged in ascending order of magnitude, along with their corresponding frequencies.
- Multivariate descriptive statistics involves analysing relationships between more than two variables.
- Inferential statistics suggest statements or make predictions about a population based on a sample from that population. Non-parametric tests relate to data that are flexible and do not follow a normal distribution.
- A Scatterplot is used to display the relationship between two quantitative variables plotted along two axes. A series of dots represent the position of observations from the data set.
- A bar chart plots the number of times a particular value or category occurs in a data set, with the length of the bar representing the number of observations with that score or in that category.
- A line graph is commonly used to display change over time as a series of data points connected by straight line segments on two axes.
- A pie chart is a divided circle, in which each slice of the pie represents a part of the whole.
- There are several different ways of using theatre to communicate evaluation findings and engage intended users in responding to them.
- Evaluation reports can be read by many different audiences, ranging from individuals in government departments, donor and partner staff, development professionals working with similar projects or programmes, students and community groups.
- News media communications can include communication channels such as newspapers, magazines, and radio, as well as digital formats such as online news sites, podcasts, social media, and blogs.
- Memos and emails can be used to help maintain ongoing communication among evaluation stakeholders through brief and specific messages about a particular issue.
- “A picture is worth a thousand words.” Pictures or images provide another way of presenting information, and increasing understanding of your results.
- A good poster communicates your message clearly, quickly and succinctly.
- When produced well, videos provide an excellent means to convey messages coming out of an evaluation.
- Data mining is the systematic process of discovering patterns in data sets through the use of computer algorithms.