A line graph is commonly used to display change over time as a series of data points connected by straight line segments on two axes.
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- Small multiples are an array of graphs on the same scale that are grouped together in a row or grid and are often used to simplify a data display.
- Blocks of background colour can help group similar items or separate reporting elements like sidebars. Text intended for narrative reading should be set in black or dark grey on a white or very light background.
- A Scatterplot is used to display the relationship between two quantitative variables plotted along two axes. A series of dots represent the position of observations from the data set.
- A treemap displays hierarchical relationships through a set of rectangles, sized proportionately to each data point, clustered together into one large rectangle.
- Bullet graphs encode a single variable as a bar.
- A histogram is a graphical way of presenting a frequency distribution of quantitative data organised into a number equally spaced intervals or bins (e.g. 1-10, 11-20…).
- Word clouds or tag clouds are graphical representations of word frequency that give greater prominence to words that appear more frequently in a source text.
- An icon array is a display in which one shape is repeated a specific number of times (usually 10, 100 or 1,000) and then some of the shapes are altered in some way (usually by colour) to represent a proportion.
- Stacked graphs depict items stacked one on top (column) of the other or side-by-side (bar), differentiated by coloured bars or strips.
- Deviation bar graphs are simply two bar charts aligned, where one of the charts runs right to left rather than left to right.
- Written reports and presentations should always include images. Beyond just charts and graphs, photographs or drawings increase the relevancy of the material to the audience and make the report more engaging.
- A matrix chart shows relationships between two or more variables in a data set in grid format.
- Demographic mapping is a way of using GIS (global information system) mapping technology to show data on population characteristics by region or geographic area.
- While many graph types geared toward comparisons ask the viewer to subtract the difference between the heights of two bars or the space between two points on a line, a deviation bar graph simply graphs the difference.
- Commonly used on maps, and x/y-axis plots, or no plot at all, bubble charts communicate the raw count, frequency, or proportion of some variable where the size of the bubble reflects the quantity.
- Word trees use a visual branching structure to show how a pre-selected word(s) is connected to other words.
- Arranging text and graphics on a page or slide can be a challenge for those not familiar with graphic design. Some basic principles can be easily implemented and boost readability and engagement.
- A network diagram uses a set of nodes and connecting lines to display of how people (or other elements) in a network are connected. It is usually a product of social network analysis.
- A pie chart is a divided circle, in which each slice of the pie represents a part of the whole.
- Dot plots encode single data points with circles, often on a line.
- Generally speaking, serif fonts support readability in long, narrative-style documents produced on paper. Sans serif fonts are easier to read in electronic reporting media.
- A bar chart plots the number of times a particular value or category occurs in a data set, with the length of the bar representing the number of observations with that score or in that category.
- GIS mapping will typically display one data variable or indicator, often using colour coding to indicate the density, frequency, or percentage in a given region, allowing quick comparison between regions.
- A slopegraph is a lot like a line graph, in that it plots change between points however, a slopegraph plots the change between only two points, without any kind of regard for the points in between.