C4D: Determine and secure resources

What is it?

Resources needed for R,M&E might include funding (to engage consultants, to cover travel costs, catering, R,M&E materials), time, expertise, willingness to be involved, and existing data. It is important be clear about available resources, and to be able to estimate the resources that will be required to do the R,M&E tasks well. Resources can then be secured (for example, through annual or project budgets, or seeking buy-in). If the resources required for the R,M&E are more than the resources available, additional resources will need to be found and/or strategies used to reduce the resources required, such as reducing the scope of the R,M&E.

General information

The Manager's Guide to Evaluation provides detailed guidance on issues to consider regarding the identification of resources, including suggestions for calculating budgets. The Rainbow Framework also covers the topic with additional links to methods for determining resources required and for securing resources, including working with local universities and strategies for reducing costs. There is also a relevant blog post on doing evaluations on a shoestring. These pages are recommended background reading before considering options to apply to C4D. 

Applying the C4D principles


Securing the resources needed, particularly funding, for R,M&E of C4D is a common challenge. This task is a foundational task for being realistic in the approach to R,M&E of C4D.


It is important to openly acknowledge that participatory approaches generally require more time and more resources. Additional resources may include:

However, researchers (including June Lennie and Jo Tacchi in their book Evaluating Communication for Development: a Framework for Social Change) argue that participatory approaches are often less costly in the long term when the benefits of participation are factored in.

Recommended methods and adaptations for C4D

General options

Using existing data


Barefoot M&E

  • The Barefoot Impact Evaluation methodology for community radio M&E in Mozambique was designed to be a simple and inexpensive process for community radio organisations to manage and implement themselves, without expensive international consultants. It uses a range of clever M&E solutions to build M&E plans around the opportunities that are available. It was designed to be just enough to 'check the pulse' of the radio, but not too burdensome. The techniques used have wide applicability, and could be adapted to suit a range of different C4D NGO and other contexts. Some of the realistic, barefoot techniques include:

    • An internal self-assessment 'check-up' using a checklist
    • 'Hearing out' the community, where informal interviews with community members on their satisfaction are added onto routine contact with communities
    • Registration of callers and letters to the station, with forms left by the phones so that demographic information of callers can be recorded
    • Feedback questions on the back of message slips (message slips are primarily to request announcements are made, but 30% of people also filled in the questionnaire on the back)
    • Interviews with people living in the staff members' neighbourhood, which enables some spread of the sample
    • Interviewing at public events
    • Some M&E is undertaken by a 'community mobilizer', who is a paid staff member at the station and is trained to undertake more in-depth focus group discussions and interviews.

    This exemplar is consistent with the C4D Evaluation Framework in the following ways:

    • Realistic: the low-cost 'barefoot' approach focuses on make the most of limited resources. Although unable to meet academic standards in terms of sampling and rigour, it is good enough for the context in which is to be used.
    • Participatory: the approach is intended to be managed and implemented by community radio stations with a nominated community mobilizer.
    • Learning-based: the key users of the assessments are the community radio stations themselves. If they use it for learning and improving the M&E is meeting the purpose.

    For further information about this example see the following resources:

  • See the article "Community Research for Community Media Sustainability" by Birgitte Jallov on page 34-37 of this guide. 

'C4D: Determine and secure resources' is referenced in: