C4D: Participatory Matrix

Participation is a fundamental element of C4D, and should, where possible and appropriate, be incorporated into RM&E as a means of developing effective, innovative and sustainable C4D.

Different stakeholders can be engaged for different purposes and at different phases of RM&E planning and implementation. Participation in the form of providing information/data is a fairly nominal form of participation, while at the other end of the spectrum inclusion in decision making can be ‘transformative’ and ‘empowering’ .

Participatory matrix

A participation and role matrix can help to map out which stakeholders will be contributing to which kinds of activities.

The level of participation increases from left to right. To map the stakeholders using the matrix, list the stakeholders in the first column, then indicate which roles each stakeholder has in the M&E/study (there may be more than one).

You can turn this into a collaborative process by discussing this matrix with stakeholders. You might want to replicate it on a large piece of paper. Consider the established decision making processes to determine who should be involved in determining how different groups might be engaged.

  (lower level of participation - nominal)       higher level of participation - potentially transformative)
Stakeholder Sources of data/information Collectors of data Analysts of data Decision-makers about what to do with the M&E findings.


Decision-makers about what the M&E/study should focus on, and how it should be done, and what to do with the findings.



Engaging stakeholders

'C4D: Participatory Matrix' is referenced in: