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  • SWOT analysis

    The SWOT analysis is a strategic planning tool that encourages group or individual reflection on and assessment of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of a
  • Delphi study

    The Delphi technique is a quantitative option to generate group consensus through an iterative process of answering questions.
  • Participant observation

    Participant observation is used to identify the attitudes and operation of a community by a researcher living within its environs.
  • Social mapping

    Social mapping, or 'wellbeing ranking', is used to identify households using pre-determined indicators based on socio-economic factors.
  • Personal stories

    Personal stories provide qualitative data about how people experience their lives and can be used to make sense of the past and to understand possible futures.
  • External consultant

    An external consultant is someone external to the organization who is contracted to conduct the evaluation.
  • Internal staff

    Conducting an evaluation using staff from the implementing agency rather than hiring external consultants.
  • Peer review for meta-evaluation

    Reviewing the evaluation by using peers from within or outside of the organisation.
  • Community

    The community, particularly intended beneficiaries of an intervention, can undertake an evaluation or contribute to a combined team.
  • Learning alliances

    Learning alliances involve a structured partnership between two or more organisations with the aim of working together to build and share knowledge around topics of mutual interest.
  • Standards, evaluative criteria and benchmarks

    Standards, evaluative criteria, or benchmarks refer to the criteria by which an evaluand will be judged during an evaluation.
  • Interviews

    Interviews are conversations between an investigator (interviewer) and a respondent (‘interviewees’, ‘informants’ or ‘sources’) in which questions are asked in order to obtain information.
  • Stated goals and objectives

    Evaluations can use the program's stated objectives and goals to assess program success or failure.
  • Public consultations

    Public consultations are usually conducted through public meetings to provide an opportunity for the community to raise issues of concern and respond to options.
  • Simple random sampling

    A simple random sample (SRS) is the most basic probabilistic option used for creating a sample from a population.
  • Stratified random sampling

    Stratified random sampling is a probabilistic sampling method, in which the first step is to split the population into strata, i.e. sections or segments.
  • Sequential sampling

    Sequential sampling is a non-probabilistic sampling technique, in which the sample size, n, is not fixed in advanced, nor is the timeframe of data collection.
  • Multi-stage sampling

    Multi-stage sampling represents a more complicated form of cluster sampling in which larger clusters are further subdivided into smaller, more targeted groupings for the purposes of surveying.
  • Outlier sampling

    Outlier sampling focuses on the extremes – the end-points of the normal distribution bell-curve.
  • Intensity sampling

    Intensity sampling uses the same logic as extreme case sampling – that much can be learned from the ends of the distribution range – but with less emphasis on the extremes.
  • Maximum variation sampling

    A maximum variation sample contains cases that are purposefully as different from each other as possible. This type of sampling is useful for examining range in large national or global programs.
  • Homogenous sampling

    Homogenous sampling involves selecting similar cases to further investigate a particular phenomenon or subgroup of interest. The logic of homogenous sampling is in contrast to the logic of maximum variation sampling.
  • Critical case sampling

    A critical case is one that permits analytic generalisation
  • Snowball sampling

    Snowball or chain sampling is a method for locating information rich key informants and critical cases.
  • Criterion sampling

    Criterion sampling involves the identification of a particular criterion of importance, articulation of this criterion, and systematic review and study of cases that meet the criterion.
  • Theory-based sampling

    Theory-based sampling involves selecting cases according to the extent to which they represent a particular theoretical construct.
  • Confirming and disconfirming sampling

    Confirming and disconfirming cases assist the evaluator in the confirmatory fieldwork stage of an evaluation.
  • Convenience sampling

    Convenience sampling selection is based on the ease or "convenience" of gaining access to a sample.
  • Volunteer sampling

    In many research contexts, sampling simply involves asking for volunteers.
  • Expert review for meta-evaluation

    An expert review involves experts reviewing the evaluation, drawing in part on their expertise and experience of the particular type of program or project.
  • Projective techniques

    Projective techniques, originally developed for use in psychology, can be used in an evaluation to provide a prompt for interviews.
  • Concept mapping

    A concept map shows how different ideas relate to each other - sometimes this is called a mind map or a cluster map.