Impact evaluation in practice

This book from the World Bank provides a detailed introduction to impact evaluations in the development field. It also provides several tools and approaches for conducting impact evaluations.

"The approach to impact evaluation in this book is largely intuitive, and we attempt to minimize technical notation. We provide the reader with a core set of impact evaluation tools—the concepts and options that underpin any impact evaluation—and discuss their application to real-world development operations."


  • Part One: Introduction to Impact Evaluation 
  • Chapter 1. Why Evaluate? 
  • Chapter 2. Determining Evaluation Questions
  • Part Two: How to Evaluate 
  • Chapter 3. Causal Inference and Counterfactuals 
  • Chapter 4. Randomized Selection Options 
  • Chapter 5. Regression Discontinuity Design 
  • Chapter 6. Difference-in-Differences
  • Chapter 7. Matching 
  • Chapter 8. Combining Options
  • Chapter 9. Evaluating Multifaceted Programs
  • Part Three. How to Implement an Impact Evaluation
  • Chapter 10. Operationalizing the Impact Evaluation Design
  • Chapter 11. Choosing the Sample
  • Chapter 12. Collecting Data


Gertler, P. J., Martinez, S., Premand, P., Rawlings, L. B., & Vermeersch, C. M. J. (2010). Impact evaluation in practice. Washington DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. Retrieved from

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