Rick Davies

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  • Process tracing is a case-based approach to causal inference which focuses on the use of clues within a case (causal-process observations, CPOs) to adjudicate between alternative possible explanations. 
  • Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a means of analysing the causal contribution of different conditions (e.g. aspects of an intervention and the wider context) to an outcome of interest.
  • Hierarchical card sorting (HCS) is a participatory card sorting method designed to provide insight into how people categorise and rank different phenomena.
  • Comparative case studies can be useful to check variation in program implementation. 
  • Data mining is the systematic process of discovering patterns in data sets through the use of computer algorithms.


  • An assessment of the extent to which an intervention can be evaluated in a reliable and credible fashion.