Participation is a fundamental element of C4D, and should, where possible and appropriate, be incorporated into RM&E as a means of developing effective, innovative and sustainable C4D.
Different stakeholders can be engaged for different purposes and at different phases of RM&E planning and implementation. Participation in the form of providing information/data is a fairly nominal form of participation, while at the other end of the spectrum inclusion in decision making can be ‘transformative’ and ‘empowering’ (for more information see the UNICEF Impact Evaluation Brief on Participation).
Product: Participation and role matrix
A Participation matrix can help to map out which stakeholders will be contributing to which kinds of activities. The level of participation increases from left to right. With reference to the mapping of stakeholders, list the stakeholders in the first column. Then indicate which roles each stakeholder has in the M&E/study (there may be more than one).
You can turn this into a collaborative process by replicating this matrix on flipchart paper. Consider the established decision making processes to determine who should be involved in determining how different groups might be engaged.
|(lower level of participation - nominal)||higher level of participation - potentially transformative)|
|Stakeholder||Sources of data/information||Collectors of data||Analysts of data||Decision makers about what to do with the M&E findings.||
Decision makers about what the M&E/study should focus on, and how it should be done, and what to do with the findings.
Community fairs: organising a community event with the aim of providing information about the project and raising the awareness of relevant issues.Resources on Engaging stakeholders via BetterEvaluation
Fishbowl technique: managing group discussion about relevant issues.
Formal meeting processes: guidance on processes for running formal meetings.
Informal meeting processes: a conversation between an evaluator and a key stakeholder that is not conducted in a formal way but is still seeking the same outcomes.